Energy systems are in a process of a profound transformation. In Europe, a radical upgrade of the existing energy system towards a system of highly efficient, synergetic and flexible components will be necessary to meet the three overarching energy and climate policy objectives. Main driving forces for this transition are:
- Significant reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, especially through implementation of intermittent renewable generation
- Shift from oil to gas through new reserves and environmental aspects
- Rapid increase in energy demand, especially in developing economies
- Globalization and need to secure competitiveness.
Sustainable energy system will be a complex combination of centralized and local generation combining a wide variety of energy resources including renewables and energy storages. Increasing the intermittent energy such as wind and solar will pose a challenge to the balance management of the power system. New solutions to increase flexibility are required at all levels of the energy system.