CCSP – Carbon Capture and Storage Program
The objective for the Carbon Capture and Storage Program>(CCSP) is to develop CCS-related technologies and concepts, leading to essential pilots and demonstrations by the end of the program. A further objective is to create a strong scientific basis for the development of CCS technology, concepts and frameworks, and to establish active, international CCS co-operation.
Main research areas are:
- CCS concepts and technologies: Solutions for combined heat and power (CHP) plants, multi-fuel power plants, bio-CCS, and heavy industry. Chemical looping combustion (CLC), mineral carbonation and other novel technologies.
- Monitoring technology: Development of methods and technology for monitoring of CO2 capture and storage
- Framework for CCS: Regulation, sustainability and public acceptance of CCS. Infrastructure and CO2 storage capacity
- CO2 utilization: CO2 as a feedstock in industrial processes, CO2 capture by algae cultivation
What is CCS?
Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS; CO2 sequestration) is considered to be one of the main options for reducing CO2 emissions alongside renewable energy, more efficient energy use and nuclear power. The concept of CCS includes separation of CO2 produced by an industrial or energy-related source (referred to as CO2 capture), transportation of CO2 to a suitable storage location, and permanent storage of CO2 in isolation from the atmosphere. CCS could significantly reduce current CO2 emissions already in a relatively short time frame (10-20 years).
CO2 capture separates CO2 at its source and produces a concentrated stream of CO2 at high pressure that can be transported to a storage site. For the energy sector, there are three main approaches to capturing the CO2 generated from fossil fuels, biomass, or mixtures of these fuels, depending on the process or power plant application to which CO2 capture is applied:
- post-combustion – separation of CO2 from a flue gas stream from a flue gas stream , typically using a liquid solvent such as monoethanolamine
- pre-combustion – separation of CO2 before combustion commonly in conjunction with gasification or industrial processes
- oxy-fuel combustion – combustion of a fuel using pure oxygen and recirculated flue gas instead of air, producing a flue gas consisting CO2 and water, from which CO2 can more easily be separated
The separated CO2 must be transported to a storage site, which can be accomplished by pipelines or tanker ships. The CO2 is typically purified and compressed or liquefied for transportation.
In order for CCS to be a useful option for reducing CO2 emissions, the captured CO2 has to be stored for thousands of years in isolation from the atmosphere. This can be accomplished by injecting CO2deep underground (above 800 km) into geological formations, similar to those that have stored oil and gas for millions of years. The injection of CO2 into geological formations involves many of the same technologies that have been developed in the oil and gas exploration and production industry.
The development of CCS technology faces many challenges. The CO2 capture is currently very energy intensive and increases the cost for electricity production by 40-80 %. CCS technology has not yet been implemented at a full-scale power plant and, therefore, several demonstration projects are underway in Europe, Australia, the United States, Japan and China that aim at implementing various CCS technologies at large power plants and industrial facilities. Since suitable underground geological formations for storage of CO2 are seldom available at the same location as where the CO2is produced, a large transport infrastructure is needed. The secure storage of CO2 in underground geological formations is neither straightforward, since every formation is unique and needs to be thoroughly investigated and tested before use. In order to ensure that the CO2 stays trapped and does not escape back into the atmosphere, monitoring of the storage formation is needed throughout the years that CO2 is being injected into the formation and also many years after injection has ceased.
There are many Finnish stakeholders for whom CCS is an important topic. Finland is a large consumer of power and heat and has an energy economy that is based partly on fossil fuels. Finland has also a large heavy industry for whom CCS is one of the few solutions for radically reducing CO2emissions. For the Finnish technology developers and providers CCS in an important new technology that could provide a significant market share in the future. CCS does not, however, provide an easy answer to reducing CO2 emissions in Finland, since the Finnish bedrock does not have any formations suitable for storage of CO2. However, Finland has large reserves of minerals that could be used for converting CO2 into inert carbonate minerals, if the proper technology can be developed.
CCSP program volume is 3M€/a for 2011-2015
Amec Foster Wheeler Energia Oy
Fortum Power and Heat Oy
Neste Jacobs Oyj
Neste Oil Oyj
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.(ONGC)
Ramboll Finland Oy
SSAB Europe Oy
Stora Enso Oyj
Aalto University (TKK)
Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE)
Geological Survey of Finland (GTK)
Lappeenranta University of Technology
Tampere University of Technology
Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT)
University of Oulu
University of Tampere
Åbo Akademi University
Work Package 1: CCS related regulation, legislation and EHSS questions
Creating and maintaining updated knowledge on the most essential legislation and regulations that set frames for the application of CCS will enable decision making for the future CCS framework, now under development. Aspects on Environment, Health, Safety & Sustainability questions and a further focus on understanding the factors and interactions influencing public acceptability of CCS will form basis for development of suitable CCS solutions.
Work Package 2: CCS concept studies
Creating and improving the combined ability of participating companies to define, evaluate and develop CCS concepts for power plants and industrial environments, as well as concepts for the sustainable utilisation of CO2 in industrial applications. Special attention is given to the opportunities and requirements typical in Finland, such as CCS in combined heat and power production, oil refining, steel industry and other industrial solutions.
Work package 3: Capture of CO2 including advanced technologies
Developing and improving the technological ability of participating companies to develop advanced and case-specific technologies and solutions for the capture of CO2 in power plants and industrial complexes. State of the art solutions are based on oxyfuel combustion and post combustion carbon capture with a special focus on biomass related solutions. The next generation capture technologies focus on Chemical Looping Combustion and other looping technologies.
Work Package 4: Processing and logistics of captured CO2
As a country with no significant geological storage capacity for CO2, defining and developing the most advantageous logistic solutions for Finnish CO2 sources and storage locations is of importance. The development of technological solutions for conditioning and intermediate storage concepts for CO2 plays a significant role in these logistic networks.
Work Package 5: Storage of CO2
Identifying the most feasible storage options from the Finnish point of view is essential for realization of CCS based CO2 abatement options. Majority of solutions are based on geological storage and the focus of the program is on areas close to Finland. Development of technology for CO2 fixation by mineral matter can bring advantages for certain industrial branches also in Finland.